Opportunity study concerning the development of a tourist resort in the commune of Valea Doftanei, Zanoaga slopes
NATURAL AND SOCIOECONOMIC OVERVIEW
Reinvest RQM company presents Zanoaga project resort
A winter-summer recreational resort that is to accommodate both therapeutic and health recovery facilities; the resort will spread over an area of 150 ha at a height of 1400 – 1500 m, in a picturesque place of Carpathian mountains in the Valea Doftanei (Doftana Valley) region, Prahova County, at a distance of 117 km from the Romanian capital, Bucharest. Reinvest RQM – a company registered with the Land Register – privately owns the area to be developed spanning over 150 ha.
The following surveys were conducted:
- Meteorological Survey;
- Mandatory Geotechnical Survey;
- Hydrogeological and Geotechnical Surveys;
by using the vertical electric drilling method, estimating water reserves and assessing the feasibility of carrying out civil engineering works in the Zanoaga mountain area.
The relevant surveys were conducted by the Geological Institute of Romania and National Institute of Meteorology. According to these surveys, the area stands unique as surrounding mountains foster large quantities of pure water; high quality soils, whilst being free from any construction restrictions, a fact which is infrequent in a mountainous area at such a high altitude.
A 2-MW power grid has been installed and reserved by our company and there is a possibility to develop it further up to 4.5 MW.
The ‘Zanoaga’ Project is currently at a stage where investments are being attracted with a view to starting construction works.
The upcoming resort will be build over a period from 2013 to 2018, when tourist attractions should also be capitalized upon.
The summer-winter tourist resort that RQM Reinvest intends to develop is located in the Valea Doftanei commune of the Prahova County–Romania, on the slopes of the Zanoaga mountain,
Valea Doftanei lies in picturesque natural surroundings offering loads of tourist attractions whilst being free from any signs of pollution or environmental degradation.
Just before entering the town of Valea Doftanei, the waters of the Doftana Riverwere impounded by the Paltinu dam (1966-1971) thus forming a reservoir that resembles a small mountainous sea; this dam is currently a major tourist attraction. The town of Valea Doftanei lies to North of the Prahova County, in the Curvature Carpathians, on Doftana River’s midstream. This area is particularly rugged to the North where it neighbors upon the Brasov County. Several massifs tower above the entire region, such as Radela, Orjogoaia, Baiu Mic, Baiu Mare, including Zanoaga, where the company intends to develop the tourist resort.
Thanks to its strategic location, Zanoaga mountain area is approximately:
- 117 km away from Romania’s capital city of Bucharest;
- 39 km away from the economic, cultural and educational centre of Brasov;
- 25 km away from DN1 (DN = Romanian designation for expressway);
- 19 km away from DN1A.
Under the circumstances, the proposed new resort has the potential of becoming the most important landmark in the Valea Doftanei area.
Access to the proposed resort is easy as DJ102L (Campina – Sacele –Brasov (DN 1A)) runs through the commune of Valea Doftanei.
DJ 102L intersects DJ 102A through its two road sections: DJ101S Comarnic – Secaria-Valea Doftanei, DJ 101T Valea Doftanei– Bertea-Slanic, linking together Valea Prahovei (Prahova Valley), Valea Doftanei and Valea Teleajenului (Teleajen Valley) areas.
The Bucharest – Brasov railway includes a station in the town of Campina and from there on, there is a 25 km drive to the area in question on the existing road infrastructure.
Available air connections: international airports ‘Henri Coanda’ or Otopeni, ‘Aurel Vlaicu’ or Bucharest – Baneasa, both located some 110 km away from the area and Ghimbav airport, about 35 km away, located in the Brasov County and currently under construction. Reinvest RQM also plans on building a helipad that will offer faster transport options for the guests and for other purposes as well, i.e. recreational or functional (aerial tours of the surroundings, fast perishable goods delivery, medical emergency evacuation, etc.).
Valea Doftanei is located in picturesque natural settings offering loads of tourist attractions whilst remaining free from any signs of pollution or environmental degradation. It lies in the Prahova County, between Prahova and Teleajen valleys. The region is particularly rugged to the North where it neighbors upon the Brasov County. There, at the source of the Doftana River, several massifs tower above the entire region: Orjogoaia, Radela, Cucioaia, Zanoaga, Baiu Mare Baiu Mic, Unghia Mare (Large Nail)and Unghia Mica (Small Nail). Seen from afar,Unghia Mare Mountain, with its geometrical lines, resembles an Egyptian pyramid appearing to have been implanted on purpose in the broken terrain of the Carpathian Mountains. Their average height is 1600 m. Further on, the town’s Southern border is guarded by several hummocks, locally called ‘hillocks’. With their forested peaks, Galma Secariei (1137 m), Galma Craitei and Galmeia (1043 m) stand out in the town’s mountainous landscape. The peaks with their grassy patches are somewhat vaulted into a Byzantine dome. They lack the dizzying angles of other slopes, but they do offer a majestic sight that brings calmness and balance to the viewer. Through this unique feature, they relate harmoniously to the large and accessible base of the terraces where the Doftana River flows by.
This mountain region, surrounded by forests, is protected from floods and landslides, as outlined in the geotechnical survey and town-planning certificate, and therefore has no building restrictions.
The projected resort will be developed in the Zanoaga mountain region at a height ranging between 1400 and 1509 meters. According to the geotechnical survey, containing information on the geomorphology, geology and hydrology of the Grohotis Mountain Range, geotechnical risk levels of the area are low.
Doftana River flows along the town. Springing from the Garbovei Mountains, it travels a distance of about 50 km up to the confluence with the Prahova River, South of Campina. On this route, it cuts its way into the Baiului and Badila Mountains, receiving a series of tributaries; starting from its source, on the left: Negras, Cucioaia, Mogosoaia, Ermeneasa, Valea lui Vladisor, Paltinoasa and Purcaru; on the right: Musita, Orjogoaia, Prislop Floreiul, Bradeasa and Secaria. It goes without saying that Doftana River’s basin is vital to locals, whilst also being the primary source for premium fresh water in the Prahova County. The area climate is protected by surrounding mountains, which is why the weather is sunny and clear throughout the seasons. The Tesila-Traisteni basin is a tourist attraction indeed with its whirling water that twists and turns and its refreshing springs and fountains that are a blessing to this place in hot summer days.
Due to the altitude and geographic location of the area, climatic conditions are similar to those found in most Curvature Carpathians. The climate is specific to middle-sized mountains, bearing small differences in the vertical evolution of meteorological parameters. Most of the year, this region is subject to the movement of air from West and Northwest: the air goes over the low peaks of the Persani Mountains relatively easily and moves across the Brasov depression, and after that it passes through the corridor between Bucegi and Postavaru Mountains, deviating through the Prahova Valley and touching the peaks of the Zanoaga Mountains. The southern tip of the mountain is also quite frequently under the influence of air masses coming from the Romanian Plain, over the Subcarpathian hills and valleys in the area, which results in weather differences between the North and the South of these mountains.
Monthly and yearly temperatures are subject to moderate variations. Throughout the year, at a height of 1400-1500m, negative monthly average temperatures are likely to occur over a time interval of about four months; this time interval may extend to 5 months on high ridges and peaks. In January and February, annual average temperatures drop from 4-6 to -8, -9 degrees Celsius. Monthly average values remain below 10 degrees Celsius over most of this time interval. Daytime temperatures rarely exceed 25 degrees Celsius. Absolute maximum values, frequently recorded in July, vary between 25 and 30 degrees C.
Annual precipitation that falls over the course of 160-180 days reaches values close to 1000mm, with the largest amounts falling in the time interval from May to July and usually exceeding 150mm. The smallest amounts fall over the time interval from September to October and from February to April, with minimum amounts being recorded in September, which is the month most favorable for tourist activity.
Snow is likely to fall annually over the course of more than 80 days from October 1 and May 1; the snow lasts for 140-170 days, from late October until early May. The sky is clear over the course of 40-42 days from late August until mid-October, partially overcast over the course of 160-190 days, from May to August, completely covered over the course of 125-160 days, from December and June. Weather offers most favorable hiking conditions over the period from July 10 to November 15, when the monthly number of sunshine hours varies between 160 and 220.
The wind is strong and sometimes violent in the winter. The wind blows mainly from NW to SE for most of the Zanoaga Mountains, although air currents frequently travel from SN or NS as well in the southern sector.
Fog is likely to occur in any month of the year, more frequently over the course of 15 to 24 days in winter, from December to April, fog is less likely to occur in August and September.
Climatic features across the low ridges and valleys of the Zanoaga Mountains allow hiking activities to take place all year round. From late April to early December you can take several hour-long walks. Northern deforested slopes are most suitable for winter sports that may be practiced from December to March, especially over the period from December 15 to March 10.
Beyond 1600m, ridges and peaks are covered with scrub vegetation and various submountain meadow variations. At a height ranging from 1400 to 1650 m, in areas close to the forest and in northern and northwestern sectors, the vegetation is made up of small clumps of spruce, dwarf juniper bushes, alder, blueberry, etc. The forest grows below 1450 m and it is firstly made up of coniferous trees, especially spruce, and then of a mix of deciduous trees and conifers and finally, from 1000 m down, it is made up of beech. Spruce forests occupy most of the northern secondary ridges and slopes.
Rare undergrowth develops in sparse forests or cleared areas or at the edge of the forest up to the riverbeds. Hazels, alders, birches, elders, etc. are most frequent in this area. High and almost constant humidity favors ferns, moss and mushrooms. Groundcover is somewhat richer only in clearings and beautifully colored flowers stand out in the deep green of the spruce forests. Along with snowdrops, violets, bells, thimbles, crocus, one may also spot other plants as well, such as wood sorrel, bittercress, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, sea-buckthorn and daffodils in the Valea Rea (Evil Valley) basin.
Forest fauna is abundant: various insects, birds – nightingales, blackbirds, finches, grouse, reptiles, mammals – Carpathian brown bears, wolves, wild boars, deer, foxes, squirrels, martens. The canopy, forest soil and clean springs flowing into the Doftana Riverare home to a large number of creatures.
Over the years, environmental protection has turned into an important concern for humankind due to global warming and increasing severity of climate change issues. We intend to keep the impact of this investment to the lowest extent possible. We wish to point out that this investment does not require any tree-cutting activities, as the land owned by Reinvest RQM is a mountain slope. We are concerned about getting ‘green’ energy from solar panels and other adaptable sources, according to legal requirements on environmental protection.
The resort our company intends to develop on the Zanoaga Mountain slopes and related surroundings has a high tourist potential considering its scenic, scientific and practical importance, favouring the development and promotion of several forms of tourism.
Moreover, its location in Romania’s most visited tourist region, i.e. Valea Prahovei, only 125 km away from the capital city and easy access via DN Bucharest-Campina and then via DJ 102i Campina – Valea Doftanei – Sacele (Brasov County) mean this resort will most likely be highly visited by holiday-makers.
Natural tourist resources
The resort our company intends to develop in the area is located at a height of 1400-1509 m, offering a great view of neighboring mountain ranges. There are several tourist attractions in the area: Paltinoasa Lake, Doftana Gorge, Old Church Ruins, Glodeasa Reservation, creative art camp, traditional households.
Paltinoasa Lake and Paltinu Dam, a fresh water reservoir, 3 km in length, offers a lovely view. Completed in 1971, the dam has a maximum height of 108 m and a span of 465 m.
Doftana Gorge is cut into a layer of hard conglomerate rocks heavily ruffled by tectonic movements and it is located on the road to Campina, several kilometers away from the Paltinoasa Lake.
The Old Church Ruins lie in the village of Traisteni on the road to Brasov.
Glodeasa Reservation dates back over 200 years.
The Valea Neagra (Black Valley) international creative art camp, open to all professional artists in the field of sculpture, graphics and painting, is held in early August.
Abundant deciduous forest fauna makes it possible to organize hunting parties and this area’s hunting grounds are renowned the world over. Paltinu Lakes an ideal place for fishing enthusiasts thanks to the diversity of species in the area.
Bioclimate – tonic, body stimulant, negative air ionization, resinous air ions, ideal for resting and relaxing, but also for prophylactic or remedial climatic therapy in cases of neurasthenia, physical and intellectual exhaustion, benign hyperthyroidism debility.
Types of tourism
In addition to the natural basic profile of this resort – leisure, relaxation and mountain hiking, there is a potential for other modern tourist attractions in the winter and summer seasons, for adults and children alike.
-hotels and guest houses;
-indoor aqua park;
-medical center and SPA;
-restaurants, clubs, bars, bistros;
-mini-golf courses, volleyball, basketball, football, tennis courts;
-horse riding centre;
-artificial lakes and ponds;
-entertainment areas for children;
-wild game lodge;
The area’s natural settings make it possible for this mountain resort to become a bivalent resort (winter-summer) with a complex profile, especially leisure and recreation, offering an attractive range of services and tourist attractions, for both domestic and international tourism.
Urban infrastructure and general technical equipment
Water will be supplied from the Doftana River and its tributaries through the company’s own collection and distribution network. The works will rely on the documentation prepared by an authorized designer in compliance with Annex 4 of Order MLPT no. 1430/2005 – Norms. Such technical documentation will be accompanied by relevant permits.
Electric power supply
Reinvest RQM will ensure the electrical power supply based on the power grid connection permit no. 33/2010 as of 11.10.2010, issued by ELECTRICA DISTRIBUTIE MUNTENIA NORD SA; power grid connection building permit no. 66 as of 04.07.2010 issued by the Valea Doftanei Town Hall. Electric power will also come from alternative green power sources to be progressively installed as the area is being developed.
Thermal power supply
Wood pellet boilers and electric water heaters will provide the necessary heat.
Waste collection and disposal will be ensured by specialized firms; waste will be disposed off through recycling facilities and landfills.
The mountain resort will be accessed via existing roads, according to Valea Doftanei urban planning specifications (acc. to the urban planning certificate issued by the Valea Doftanei Town Hall).
Attractions within a radius of 50 km
This spiritual symbol was built in 1378 as a royal residence; it is currently a museum of medieval art and history.
The Peles complex is an architectural ensemble (Peles Castle, Pelisor Castle, Foisor Castle, the Guard’s Chamber and the Company Store) built by King Carol I on the left bank of the Peles creek; the complex stands in picturesque settings and it is one of the most sought after attraction in the Prahova Valley.
BucegiMountainsstretch along the upper part of Valea Prahovei, in eastern Carpathians, looking gloriously upon several towns scattered like pearls across the valley: Azuga, Busteni, Poiana Tapului, Sinaia. The Bucegi Mountain Range spreads across three counties, i.e. Dambovita, Prahova and Brasov.
The Sphinx is an anthropomorphic megalith in the Bucegi Mountains and it stands 2216 m above sea level. Its name comes from the rock formation’s resemblance to a human head, particularly the Egyptian Sphinx; the sphinx was shaped into its current form by wind erosion. Consisting of a large block of stone that took its current shape in a very long time, the Sphinx is 8 m tall and 12 m wide.
Babele (The Old Women)
Babele are rock formations located near the Baba Mare peak (2292 m) in Sourthern Carpathians. An important tourist attraction, Babele Chalet is located close to the same peak and it is the starting point for hiking in Bucegi Mountains.
Urlatoarea Waterfall (The Screamer)
Urlatoarea Creek gives birth to the Urlatoarea Waterfall near the town of Busteni Romania; this waterfall lies at a height of 1100m above sea level, close to the hiking trail from Busteni to the Bucegi Plateau via Valea Jepilor(Jenuper Valley). Poiana Țapului (Buck’s Glade) is an alternative route to the waterfall. In addition to the main water descent (15 m), there are also other smaller descents, some tens of meters above on the two creeks Urlatoarea Mare si Urlatoarea Mica.
Bucegi National Park
Bucegi National Parkwas established as a measure of preventing the irrational consumption of natural resources and the destruction of biologic diversity in the process of tourism promotion and development. It spreads over area of 32,663 ha of which 16,334 ha lie under the administrative territory of PrahovaCounty. It is an area of great biological, geological and geomorphologic diversity, particularly important due to its karst topography and scientific interest: Pestera Ialomitei (Ialomița Cave), Pestera Ratei (Ratei Cage), Cheile Zanoagei(Zanoaga Gorge), Cheile Ursilor (Bears’ Gorge), Cheile Orzei (Orza Gorge), Cheile Tatarului (Tartar’s Gorge), Claile din Lespezi, Canionul Horoabei (Horoaba Canyon), grikes, sinkholes.
Predeal ski slopes
Predeal, one of Romania’s most popular tourist destinations, is ideal for winter sports enthusiasts. The resort lies in the upper part of the Prahova Valleyand is surrounded by Bucegi, Postavaru (the Draper) and Piatra Mare(Burnt Rock) Mountains.
Kalinderu ski slope in Busteni
The Kalinderu ski slope is located in Bucegi and it is under the ownership of the Busteni Town Hall, which is why it is one of Romania’s most modern ski slopes.
Sinaia ski slopes
Sinaia, one of Romania’s most beautiful mountain resorts, has a rich cultural and social history. Located in the Valea Prahovei area, at the feet of Varful cu Dor, Furnica (the Ant) and Piatra Arsa Mountains, this resort is particularly sought after by winter sports enthusiasts from Romania’s capital city.
Azuga ski slopes
Azuga is one of Romania’s newest ski resorts and it is located in the Valea Prahovei area in Baiului Mountains (southern Carpathians). The resort’s ski slopes comply with international standards and the service is very good.
Posada Hunting Museum
Posada Hunting Museum was open to the public in 1996 and it is a repository for Romanian hunting tradition.
Cheia (the Key)
Cheia (formerly known as Teleajenul) is a town located 60 km North from Valea Doftanei via DN1A, in the Maneciu Commune, Prahova County, Muntenia, Romania.
Geographically speaking, the town lies along Valea Teleajenului; it is sheltered by a small depression safeguarded by the Bratocea Ridge with theCiucas Peakto the North, the Zaganu Ridge with the Gropsoarele Peakto the East and the Babes-Bobu Mountain to the West, in the Ciucas Massif (eastern Carpathians). Cheia Monastary lies in close proximity to the town of Cheia.
At the end of the 19th century, a small settlement called Teleajenul could be found in the area; with only 82 inhabitants, the settlement was in close proximity to the Bratocea customs between Romania and Austro-Hungary. Teleajenul pertained to the Maneciu-Ungureni commune, Prahova County. Later on, the settlement changed its name into Cheia, after the nearby monastery.
Cheia Monastery, a monk monastery under the patronage of the Holy Trinity, is located on the right bank of the Tampacreek, to the Southeast of the town. Originally documented in 1770, the monastery was destroyed by the ottomans, then rebuilt, then consumed in a fire. The present church was built of brick between 1835 and 1839 and painted by Gheorghe Tattarascu in 1837.
Busteni Royal Church
Built from quarry stone, this church is a small size copy of the Horezu Monastery through its architecture, inside fittings and age, which is why the Busteni Royal Church is one of the town’s remarkable monuments.
Cantacuzino Castle – Busteni
Cantacuzino Castle was built in 1911 in a park whose owner was Prince Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino also known as ‘Nababu’ because of his impressing wealth. Rumours said he could pave the entire castle yard in gold coins.
‘Ultima Grenada’ (the Last Grenade) Memorial – Busteni
This memorial standing between the Royal Church and the Busteni Railway Station was built in 1928 under the patronage of Otto Schiel, the owner of the town’s Paper Factory. The statue was dedicated to Corporal Vasile Musat, who died heroically in WWI.
Cross of Nation’s Heroes on the Caraiman Mountain
Busteni’s largest and most valuable monument, one of a kind in Romania, is the Cross of Nation’s Heroes who lost their lives in battles for national unification. The memorial was built between 1926 and 1927 under the patronage of Her Royal Highness Queen Mary and placed on the Caraiman crest at a height of 2291 m.
Dimitrie Ghica Park –Bucegi Reservation Museum
‘Dimitrie Ghica’ Park in Sinaia was built in 1881 under the supervision of the Swiss landscape designer, Eder. Several centennial trees grow here; the park also accommodates several festivals held in the town of Sinaia.
Caraiman monastery is an orthodox monastery in the town of Busteni, lying at the feet of the Caraiman Massif. The Caraiman Cross safeguards the pathway that guides the pilgrims to the monastery. On the road to the Busteni cable cart, somewhere on the left, there is a sign and an icon pointing towards this pathway that is dotted about with stone slabs.
Standing to the North of the ‘Dimitrie Ghica’ Park, the Sinaia Casino still is one of the town’s architectural symbols. This stately building was erected in record time, over the course of one year (1912-1913), on a land plot where the Ghica villa used to lie, the resort’s first villa, erected by prince Dimitrie Ghica.
Sinaia railway station
This is an important station where trains such as Orient Express or Arlberg Express used to halt at the turn of the 20th century. As regards the Royal Station, located a few tens of meters away, it was built based on the plans of architect Duiliu Marcu in 1939.
Poiana Stanii (Sheepfold Glade) Rock Formations
Holiday makers can reach Poiana Stanii by foot. The place is considered a panoramic viewpoint.
Sinaia Monastery – after three hundred years of existence, the monument continues to watch over the town that bears its name and whose spiritual symbol it is.
Slanic Prahova Salt Mine
It is the largest salt mine in Europe. The town is known for its salty lakes (also called baths): Baia Baciului(Shepherd’s Bath), Baia Verde (Green Bath) and Baia Rosie (Red Bath), and also for Salina Veche (Old Salt Mine) and Salina Noua (New Salt Mine) salt mines.
Pestera de Gheata (Ice Cave) – Piatra Mare (Big Rock)
Pestera de gheata is located in the Piatra Mare Massif, at the feet of Gatul Chivei ridge, in a precipice several tens of meters deep.
Tamina Waterfall– Timisu de Sus
To reach this spectacular waterfall, tourists must hike through the forest. There is a metal stairway adjacent to the waterfall; at times, you can hold on to the chain attached, other times there is nothing to hold on to but the very walls.
Iulia Hasdeu Castle
Iulia Hasdeu Castle, the creation of Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, was built to commemorate his daughter, Iulia Hasdeu (also called ‘the Castle of the Campina Magus’); this building is unique and it was erected exclusively based on the information and plans sent by Iulia (from the after world) during the séance sessions held by her father. This is where B. P. Hasdeu wrote his esoteric work Sic Cogito (‘This is how I think!’) and this is also where he carried out his first psycho-photography experiments.
‘Nicolae Grigorescu’ Memorial House– Campina
Nicolae Grigorescu Memorial House is a historic house museum in Campina (Prahova County), where Nicolae Grigorescu used to paint and live (1838-1907). The memorial museum (ground floor and first floor) was open to the public in 1957.
Telega Salt Baths
These baths were renowned among the well off as early as 1900s. The special features of this lake, with its high mineral salt levels and water stability are ideal for treating musculoskeletal system disorders and fertility.
Brebu Royal House
The Brebu museum collection, which pertains to the Ploiesti History Museum, was open to the public on September 12, 1971. Kept in the area’s royal houses, this collection is part of the Brebu architectural ensemble, one of the most important monuments started by Matei Basarab and completed by Constantin Brâncoveanu, a work of architecture typical of the 17th century.
The Brebu Monastery is located in the town of Brebu, Prahova County, close to the Doftana River; the monastery church has a three-cone design, with a larger spire built above the nave and two smaller ones above the narthex; the walls are 2 meters in thickness. The only items of adornment are represented by two bays and a stone girdle placed at the top, as well as by the door and window frames that were carved by master Lupu and reproduce late Moldavian gothic patterns.
Ploiesti Clock Museum
The Clock Museum, one of a kind among Romanian museums, was open to the public in 1963, in a hall pertaining to the Ploiesti Cultural Palace, under the patronage of Professor Nicolae Simache, director of the History Museum from 1954 to 1971.
Brasov Black Church
The Black Church (German Die Schwarze Kirche), one of Brasov’s symbols, is the parochial church of the Romanian Evangelical Church. It lies in the Brasovcity center and it was built around 1380 (most likely starting with 1377) in a gothic style. The church, initially of catholic rite, was firstly known as Saint Mary Church (Marienkirche). The building was partially destroyed in the great fire of 1689, when it was given its present name. The church’s popular name given after the fire, i.e. BlackChurch, was officially accepted in the 19th century.
Valea Doftanei Cheese Festival
The festival is held on the Valea Doftanei football field. Over the course of 2 days, visitors can enjoy traditional products, the best hard cheeses, various types of cheese, ‘bulz’, ‘mititei’, ‘țuica’, wine and must. Tens of producers gather in Valea Doftanei to compete against each other over the quality of their products.
Standing in Valea Teleajenului, some 40 km away from Valenii de Munte – 14 km away from Maneciu, in charming natural surroundings, Suzana Monastery is a monument dedicated to spirituality and art. It was built in 1740, and the present building of the great church was built between 1880 and 1882, undergoing reparation works in 1975.